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Wuhan pneumonia pathogen was first identified as a new type of coronavirus. You must know these 8 questions!

Original title: Wuhan pneumonia pathogen was initially identified as a new type of coronavirus. You must know these 8 questions!

(SARS) 和中东呼吸综合征 (MERS) 等呼吸道病原。 On January 9, 2020, Xinhua News Agency reported that the unexplained pneumonia pathogen of Wuhan had been initially identified as a new coronavirus, and influenza, avian influenza, adenovirus, infectious atypical pneumonia (SARS), and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS ) had been ruled out. ) Wait for respiratory pathogens.

The next step is to conduct expert research and judgement in combination with etiology research, epidemiological investigation and clinical manifestations.

(Image source: CCTV)

What is coronavirus? What does it have to do with SARS? Is the disease serious? Clove Garden has organized 8 questions about coronavirus for you to help you have a more comprehensive understanding of the pathogen and the incident.

1. What is a coronavirus?

(coronavirus, CoVs) 归类于网巢病毒目、冠状病毒科、冠状病毒属,是单链正股RNA 病毒,最早于1965 年Tyrrell 与Bynoe 从一名感冒儿童的呼吸道采集了标本,通过胚胎支气管组织培养发现,因电子显微镜观察发现病毒包膜上有类似日冕的棘突,故命名为冠状病毒。 Coronaviruses ( Coronavirus , CoVs) are single-stranded positive-strand RNA viruses classified in the order Reticulovirus , Coronaviridae, and Coronavirus. As early as 1965, Tyrrell and Bynoe collected specimens from the respiratory tract of a cold child. Embryonic bronchial tissue culture found that the coronavirus-like spines were found on the envelope of the virus, which was named coronavirus.

Coronaviruses are a large class of viruses that can infect mammals and birds and cause many diseases.

Coronavirus in the Middle East (source: stand cool heroin)

2. Is the corona virus harmful?

The harms of different types of coronavirus to human body are very different. Prior to the incident, there were six known human coronaviruses. Four of these coronaviruses are more common in the population and are less pathogenic, generally causing only minor respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold.

The other two coronaviruses—Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, also known as SARS Coronavirus and MERS Coronavirus, can cause severe respiratory diseases.

(The difference between common cold and pneumonia)

The new coronavirus that caused the epidemic is different from the human coronaviruses that have been discovered, and further understanding of the virus requires further scientific research. So far, no corresponding patients have died, and 8 mild patients have been discharged.

3. How infectious is the coronavirus?

The most common modes of transmission of common human coronaviruses are:

  • Airborne from person to person, such as coughing, sneezing, etc.

  • Communication between people, such as handshake, etc.

  • Touch your mouth, nose, or eyes after touching a virus-bearing object

  • (少见) Fecal pollution (rare)

Airborne from person to person, such as coughing, sneezing, etc.

Communication between people, such as handshake, etc.

Touch your mouth, nose, or eyes after touching a virus-bearing object

(少见) Fecal pollution (rare)

As of now, no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission has been found in the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, and specific sources of infection and transmission methods are still under investigation. On January 8, eight patients with mild new-type coronavirus pneumonia were discharged.

4. Why did it take so long to confirm the pathogen in this outbreak?

According to Koch's Law, the identification of the cause of an epidemic usually requires the following:

(1) Suspicious pathogens must be found in patients, and pathogenic nucleic acids can be detected in clinical samples of patients;

(2) The pathogen can be successfully isolated from the patient's clinical sample;

(3) The isolated pathogen can cause the same disease symptoms after infecting the host animal. The patient's serum antibody titer during the recovery period increased four-fold, which can help identify the pathogen.

Tissue laboratories use genomic sequencing, nucleic acid detection, virus isolation, and other methods to etiologically detect samples from patients with alveolar lavage fluid, throat swabs, and blood. Finding the nucleic acid, genomic and antibody evidence of the pathogen from the patient can be done in a short time. Scientific research, such as pathogen isolation and pathogenicity identification, can take weeks.

It is important to understand that the degree of pathogen damage is not directly related to the time it takes to isolate and test the pathogen. It takes a lot of time for a pathogen to be identified. It may not be because it is too powerful, but "too little sense of existence." Humans don't understand it yet.

5. How is coronavirus infection treated?

(如服用退烧药、洗热水澡等) 来缓解症状。 Most of the upper respiratory tract coronavirus infections are self-limiting diseases, and they will recover on their own after a period of time. Some measures (such as taking antipyretics, taking hot baths, etc.) can be taken to relieve symptoms.

Coronavirus-induced viral pneumonia currently lacks specific antiviral drugs. Combining epidemiological and clinical features with early diagnosis and reasonable support for symptomatic treatment is the key to reducing mortality. In addition, attention should be paid to reducing unnecessary antibiotic use.

For Middle Eastern coronavirus, the "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults in China" recommends ribavirin and interferon therapy.

For SARS, symptomatic supportive care is the mainstay. There are currently no proven effective antivirals. Ribavirin has no in vitro activity against SARS virus and there is no evidence to improve outcomes. Hormone use may have been more common back then, but to date there is no evidence-based medicine. The risk of adverse reactions after high-dose hormone use should be emphasized, such as secondary pulmonary Aspergillus infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, osteoporosis, and femoral neck necrosis. The role of immunoglobulins is uncertain.

6. How to prevent coronavirus infection?

Common coronavirus infections can occur throughout the year. For this viral pneumonia, Wuhan has adopted measures to close the South China seafood market, isolate patients for treatment, close contact tracing and medical observation and other control measures, which have effectively reduced the risk of public infection.

There are several measures we can take to protect ourselves against the ways that coronaviruses infect people, as well as universal upper respiratory infection and pneumonia prevention methods:

(1) Hand hygiene

Washing hands and carefully disposing of items contaminated with nasal secretions are clear precautions against viral infections such as rhinovirus and coronavirus.

(1)接触患者前; (2)进行无菌操作前;(3)体液暴露后;(4)接触患者后;(5)接触患者周围环境后。 Hand hygiene should be performed in accordance with WHO's "5 Moments of Hand Hygiene": (1) before contacting patients; (2) before performing aseptic procedures; (3) after exposure to body fluids; (4) after contacting patients; (5) contacting patients After the surroundings.

Source: WHO official website

Washing hands with soap and running water is recommended. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are also available.

(2) Wear a mask when necessary

If you are going to crowded places, wearing a mask properly can reduce the risk of infection.

有详细真人示范。 The specific method of wearing the mask can be demonstrated in detail by a real person.

7. Did the unexplained pneumonia event end?

Strictly speaking, not yet. 这很可能也是我们十多年来没有进步的地方。 We still have a key step to complete , to understand how this new virus enters the human body to cause disease, which is probably also where we have not made progress for more than a decade.

很有可能这些病毒是经过野生动物传播到人体的。 From the characteristics of the coronavirus and the distribution of cases, it is likely that these viruses were transmitted to humans through wild animals.

道来看,这家海鲜市场对野生动物的管理还有需要规范的地方,以避免给病毒的变 异和传播营造条件。 Judging from the incident reports , this seafood market still needs to regulate the management of wild animals to avoid creating conditions for the mutation and spread of the virus . 的野生动物与人的接触,但尽量规范管控,减少暴露可能,对人类对自然都是有利的。 Of course, it is impossible to avoid all contact between wildlife and humans, but it is beneficial to humans and nature to regulate and control as much as possible to reduce the possibility of exposure.

8. What can we learn from this incident?

1. Many pneumonias are caused by unidentified viruses. 即便在中国最顶尖病毒实验室所在的武汉,排除众多病毒,最后定位清晰也是不容易的。 Everyone who has been paying attention to the incident should have noticed that even in Wuhan, where China's top virus laboratory is located, it is not easy to locate a lot of viruses in the end.

情况,因为多数可能不能那么严重,经过一些支持或者其他治疗,也能好起来。 In reality, there will be many similar cases of viral infectious pneumonia , because most of them may not be so serious, and they can be better after some support or other treatments.

With limited medical resources, about half of pneumonia can be clearly identified. In terms of the final outcome and transmission, pneumonia is not very serious this time, because the characteristics of clustering and onset are valued, and it can be regarded as a successful crisis drill.

2. Even if the cause is not clear, we have ways to prevent these pneumonias. 飞沫传播的。 Most of the pathogens that cause pneumonia are transmitted by hand-to-mouth contact and droplet transmission.

不在常见的肺炎流行季节 (冬季) 去往人群中扎堆儿;学校应及时劝退生病的学生,不宣扬带病学习;好好洗手,优先还是水和肥皂洗手,无洗手条件用酒精消毒 (对部分病毒无效) Preventive methods include: stay away from people who are suspected of being sick, or simply stay away from the crowd during the common pneumonia epidemic season (winter) ; schools should promptly retire sick students and not promote learning with illness; wash your hands, and water and Wash hands with soap and disinfect with alcohol (no effect on some viruses) .

3. Some pneumonias are more dangerous, and we have better ways. Yes, presumably you also know about vaccines. 预防肺炎,我们有适合小朋友和高危人群的肺炎球菌疫苗和流感疫苗。 Yes, to prevent pneumonia, we have pneumococcal and flu vaccines for children and high-risk groups.

For vaccination of the latest domestic pneumonia vaccine, you can click to view previous articles from Dingyuan:

实要远超这次的「武汉肺炎」。 The danger of death from pneumonia caused by influenza transmission every year is actually far more than this "Wuhan pneumonia". 过了流感疫苗接种的最佳时机,不过亡羊补 牢也是在补,起码现在接种还不晚,能勉强 赶得上春节访亲探友的病毒交流小高峰, 赶紧把流感疫苗 安排上吧! Now I have missed the best time for flu vaccination, but I am also making up for the dead sheep . At least it is not too late. I can barely catch up with the small peak of virus exchange during the Spring Festival visits to relatives and friends. Hurry up and arrange the flu vaccine !

Article first: breathing time

Editors: Feiteng, Wei Wei, Baptist Moon

Source of the problem map: Tuworm Creativity Back to Sohu, see more

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